Small lexicon concerning the company

Augsburg (war of the league of), conflict which opposed, from 1688 to 1697, France with the league of Augsburg (formed by the emperor, of the German princes, Spain and Sweden) allied in the United Provinces, England and Savoy. The war was marked by the French victories of Fleurus (1690), of Steinkerque (1692), Marsaille (1693) in Italy, and by the naval defeat of Hougue (1692); it ended in the peace of Ryswick.

Chandernagor, v. of India (Bengal-Westerner), on Hooghly; 76 000 h. Ancien French counter (1686-1951).

cipaye [ sipaj ] (Portuguese, Persan word sipahi, soldier) Hist. Indigenous soldier of the Company, then English army of the Indies. (the revolt of the cipayes [ 1857-1858 ] caused the disappearance of the English Company of the Indies.)

Colbert (Jean-baptiste), French statesman (Rheims 1619 - Paris 1683). Recommended to Louis XIV by Mazarin, of which he was the right-hand man, he contributed to the fall of Fouquet, became superintendent of the Building industries (1664), controller of Finances (1665), then Secretary of State at the House of the king (1668) and to the Navy (1669). He carried on little by little his activity in all the fields of the public administration. By protectionist measurements and being based on the theories mercantilists, it supported industry and the trade, made come to France craftsmen from abroad, multiplied manufactures of State, reorganized finances, justice, the navy, created the mode of the maritime inscription and the case of the invalids, founded several royal companies of colonization (of the Eastern and Western Indies, 1664; Raising, 1670; from Senegal, 1673) and supported «the tribe »of Canada. Member of the French Academy, it constituted into 1663 «a consulting », core of the future Academy of the inscriptions, founded into 1666 the Academy of Science, created the Observatory into 1667, sponsored the Brown one. He published a series of ordinances intended to standardize and rationalize the legislation according to principles' of monarchical centralization. From 1671, it tried to fight against the royal expenditure, but its influence decreased with the profit of that of Louvois.

Dupleix [ - pleks ] (Joseph François), French administrator (Landrecies 1696 - Paris 1763). General governor of the French Establishments in India (1742), it gave a sharp impulse to the national trade and endeavoured to undermine the British activity. He obliged England to raise the head office of Pondichéry (1748) and acquired for France a vast empire in Carnatic (auj. Karnataka) and on the coast of Circars (auj. Sarkars). Fought to Paris, given up by the king, it returned to France (1754), where it could not obtain refunding advances which it had made with the Company of the Indies.

French establishments in India: together of territories located on the coasts of India and forming a French colony whose capital was Pondichéry. Made of counters and establishments created between 1668 and 1739, this colony was extended by Dupleix, whose work was destroyed by the treaty of Paris (1763). The five counters which France preserved were attached to the Indian Union: Chandernagor (in 1949), Karikal, Mahé, Pondichéry and Yanaon (in 1954).

Gama (Vasco of), Portuguese navigator (Sines v. 1469 - Cochin 1524). It discovered into 1497 the road of the Indies by the course of Good-Hope, founded the establishments of Mozambique (1502) and was viceroy of the Portuguese Indies (1524).

Guillaume III (the Hague 1650 - Kensington 1702), stathouder of the United Provinces (1672-1702), king d' Angleterre, of Scotland and posthumous Ireland (1689-1702), wire of Guillaume II of Nassau and Marie, girl of Charles Ier Stuart. Stathouder (1672), it saved its fatherland of the French invasion of opening the locks in order to flood the country, formed against Louis XIV a European coalition and preserved the integrity of the Dutch territory to the treaty of Nimègue (1678). Defender of Protestantism, it reversed throne of England his father-in-law, Jacques II, and was proclaimed king into 1689, jointly in his wife, Marie II Stuart. Louis XIV recognized his authority with the treaty of Ryswick (1697).

Karikal, port of India, on the anc. French establishment, Bay of Bengal (1739-1954); 61 875 H.

Bourdonnais (Bertrand François Mahé, count of), sailor and administrator French (Saint-Malo 1699 - Paris 1753). Governor of the islands of France and Bourbon, it contributed with the establishment of French counters in India.

Lally (Thomas, baron de Tollendal, count of), general governor of the French Establishments in India (Novels 1702 - Paris 1766). Overcome by the English, it capitulated in Pondichéry. Shown treason, it was condemned to died and carried out. Voltaire took part in his rehabilitation.

Lauriston (Jacques Law, marquis of), Marshal of France (Pondichéry 1768 - Paris 1828). Aide-de-camp of Napoleon in 1800 and 1805, ambassador in Russia (1811), prisoner in Leipzig (1813), it was named marshal by Louis XVIII and took part in the forwarding of Spain (1823).

Law (John), Scottish financier (Edinburgh 1671 - Venice 1729). Come to France, he was the creator of the Company of the Indies and organized in 1716 the general Bank, banks of deposit and of discount, become banks of emission, which knew the bankruptcy (1720).

Léopold Ier (Vienna 1640 - id. 1705), king de Hongrie (1655-1705), archduke of Austria and emperor (1658-1705), king de Bohême (1656-1705). It accepted the peace of Nimègue (1679), entered the league of Augsburg (1686), signed the treaty of Ryswick (1697), obtained from Ottomans the abandonment of Hungary (treated of Karlowitz, 1699) and engaged the Empire in the war of succession of Spain.

Louis XV the Beloved one (Versailles 1710 - id. 1774)
Company following «the inversion of alliances »to make failure with the ambitious intentions of Prussia and of England, the Seven Year old war (1756-1763) ends, in spite of the pact of family concluded by Choiseul in 1761 between the four branches from the house from Bourbon, with the loss of the possessions of India and Canada (treated of Paris, 1763).

Mahé, v. of the south of India, on the Malabar Coast; 33 425 h. French Établissement of 1721-1727 to 1954-1956.

Pondichéry, v. of India, anc. CH-L of the French Establishments in India, on the coast of Coromandel; 401 337 h. Acquise by the French in 1674, Pondichéry became the seat of the Company of the Eastern Indies. Conquered by the British on several occasions in second half of XVIIIe S., it was restored in France in 1815. It was yielded to India into 1956. - the territory of Pondichéry has 480 km2 and 789 416 H.

Ryswick (treated) [ 1697 ], treated signed with Ryswick, close to the Hague, putting fine at the war of the League of Augsburg. The first was signed on Sept. 20 between France, the United Provinces, England and Spain; the second, Oct. 30, between France and the Saint Worsens. Louis XIV restored the occupied territories (Lorraine, Palatinat, Catalogne) or annexed thanks to his policy of the Meetings, except Sarrelouis and Strasbourg.

Seven Years (war of): [ 1756-1763 ], war which opposed Great Britain and Prussia to France, Austria and their allies. It was marked by the French defeats in Germany (Rossbach, 1757), in Canada (falls of Quebec and Montreal) and in India (1761). By the treaty of Paris (10 févr. 1763), France lost Canada, India and Louisiana. By the treaty of Hubertsbourg (15 févr. 1763), Prussia kept Silesia.

Suffren de Saint-Tropez (Pierre Andre of), known as the baillif de Suffren, marine French (Saint-Cannat, close to Aix-en-Provence, 1729 - Paris 1788). Commander and baillif about Malta, it fought during the war of America (1779), before being used glorieusement for the Indies against Great Britain (1782-83). It was named vice-admiral in 1784.

Yanaon, one of the anc. French establishments in India, on the coast of Coromandel. Attached to India in 1954.

The treaty of Paris: [ 1763 ], leaves in France only the Establishments of French India; the British preserve Bombay, Madras and Bengal, following the Seven Year old war After the fall of Quebec at the time of the battle of the Plains of Abraham where Montcalm finds death (1759), and the capitulation of Montreal, France by the treaty of Paris (1763) yields all Canada to Great Britain and opens the West with the English colonists.